Perhaps, nevertheless, some (not necessarily inconsistent) norms can be stated in keeping with these ideas. I suggest the following:
- Human society should be able to reproduce itself (Karl Marx).
- Unnecessary suffering should be alleviated (Karl Popper).
- Everybody should have the freedom to develop their capabilities to the best of their abilities (Aristotle, Marx).
Robert Nozick, as I understand him, begs a definition of natural rights. And then he argues for the following principles on that basis:
- A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in acquisition is entitled to that holding.
- A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in transfer, from someone else entitled to the holding, is entitled to the holding.
- Unjust acquisitions or transfer should be rectified
Perhaps these sorry days are ripe for an immanent critique of the idea of equality of opportunity.
I did not manage to mention above the Austrian-school economist Israel Kirzner's defense of returns to entrepeneurship with what he calls a "finders keepers" ethic. I have not read John Rawls.