A Strange Attractor Arises From The Lorenz Equations |

I think reswitching, capital reversing, and Sraffa effects may be the source of both dynamic and structural instabilities in General Equilibrium models. I am not so much interested in dynamics of a tâtonnement process in some sort of no-time before the beginning of time in the Arrow-Debreu model of intertemporal equilibrium. Rather, I find more of interest the dynamics of spot prices in models of temporary equilibrium.

My claim that the Cambridge Capital Controversy can be drawn on for examining the dynamics of certain economic models is not original. Barkley Rosser (1983) related reswitching to a cusp catastrophe. A cusp catastrophe, as I understand it, is a kind of structural instability. Overlapping Generation Models (OLGs) provide my favorite neoclassical closure of Sraffian production models. Saverio Fratini (2007) has investigated cases in which reswitching gives rise to multiple stationary state equilibria in OLGs. I've convinced myself that whether multiple equilibria are associated with a "normal" or "perverse" switch point can depend on the form of the utility functions in OLGs.

An issue arises in showing that Sraffa effects are associated with the appearance of complex and chaotic dynamics in models of General Equilibrium. Researchers have already established that complex dynamics can arise in such models anyways, including OLGs, for other reasons. For example, John Geanakoplus states:

"Grandmont ..., following related work of Benhabib and Day ... and Benhabib and Nishimura ..., gave a robust example of a one-commodity, stationary economy ... giving rise to a three-cycle... Of course a cycle ... is also a cyclical equilibrium for the economy, hence there are robust examples of economies with cycles of all orders." -- John Geanakoplos (2008)Geanakoplos is relying on Theorem 1 in Li and Yorke (1975). In the references, I give sources for identifying literature exploring the dynamics of General Equilibrium models, including OLGs, independently of considerations raised in the CCC.

The consequences of modeling the economy as potentially exhibiting complex non-linear dynamics are far reaching. Rajiv Sethi, in a series of blog posts, has pointed out some implications of a serious concern with non-linear dynamics for mainstream macroeconomics:

- An Outsider's View of Modern Macroeconomics
- On the Consequences of Nominal Wage Flexibility
- On Buiter, Goodwin, and Nonlinear Dynamics
- On Rational Expectations and Equilibrium Paths

I think one can show that Sraffa effects can give rise to complex dynamics in OLGs, even with the knowledge that OLGs can produce chaotic dynamics otherwise. I need to find an OLG model with perhaps a single good being produced in each period and in which complex dynamics do not arise for the specified form of the utility function. Then one should alter the production model to be a two or three-good reswitching example. Finally, one should establish complex dynamics arise in the resulting models. Even if this strategy is not successful, one pursuing it will have to explore and understand already existing models with complex dynamics.

**References**

- Jess Benhabib (2008) "Chaotic Dynamics in Economics", in
*The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics*(Ed. by S. N. Durlauf and L. E. Blume), 2nd edition, Palgrave Macmillan - Jess Benhabib (editor) (1992)
*Cycles and Chaos in Economic Equilibrium*, Princeton University Press - Saverio M. Fratini (2007) "Reswitching of Techniques in an Intertemporal Equilibrium Model with Overlapping Generations",
*Contributions to Political Economy*, V. 26: pp. 43-59. - John Geanakoplos (2008) "Overlapping Generations Model of General Equilibrium", in
*The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics*(Ed. by S. N. Durlauf and L. E. Blume), 2nd edition, Palgrave Macmillan - John Guckenheimer and Philip Holmes (1983)
*Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical Systems, and Bifurcations of Vector Fields*, Springer-Verlag - Yijun He and Willam A. Barnett (2006) "Existence of Bifurcation in Macroeconomic Dynamics: Grandmont was Right"
- Tien-Yien Li and James A. Yorke (1975) "Period Three Implies Chaos",
*American Mathematical Monthly*, V. 82, N. 10 (Dec.): pp. 985-992 - J. Barkley Rosser, Jr. (1983) "Reswitching as a Cusp Catastrophe",
*Journal of Economic Theory*, V. 31: pp. 182-193 - Paul A. Samuelson (1958) "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money",
*Journal of Political Economy*, V. 66, N. 6 (December): pp. 467-482 - Robert Shiller (1978) “Rational Expectations and the Dynamic Structure of Macroeconomic Models: A Critical Review”,
*Journal of Monetary Economics*, V. 4: pp. 1-44.

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